Challenges in Preparing Lesson Plans: Preschool Teachers as Instructional Designers

By:
To add a paper, Login.

The main aim of this study is to find out the challenges that the preschool teachers faced while they are preparing their lesson plans. There are five main constructs in the process of preparing a lesson plan, starting from the planning of lesson plan, the arrangement of steps in teaching activities in the lesson plan until the preparation of the teaching aids or resources. Based on a factorial analysis, researchers have categorized the three main components above into five main factors in teachers’ quality teaching. The five main factors are while teachers are teaching (i) focus on the students’ abilities and interest; (ii) based on the Malaysia National Preschool Curriculum as the main reference; (iii) based on teaching aids or resources; (iv) follow rigid procedures and (v) without making any adjustment. The research findings showed that the factor that is related to follow the rigid procedure has become the main factor that were practiced by the preschool teachers in order to produce quality teaching (mean = 3.2554, S.D. = 0.4786). This is followed by the factor based on teaching aids or resources (mean = 3.1934, S.D. = 0.3973), the factor of focus on the students’ abilities and interests (mean = 3.1675, S.D. = 0.4192) and factor of base on Malaysia National Preschool Curriculum as main reference (mean = 3.0446, S.D. = 0.5006). Factor of without making any adjustment as the least practice factor implemented by preschool teachers in order to produce quality teaching (mean = 2.6826, S.D. = 0.3749). Most of the teachers or a highest percentage of teachers agree that they are practicing all the four factors except the factor without making any adjustment. Nevertheless, qualitative data showed that the problems that the teacher faced while preparing teaching steps derived from several reason such as lacking in teaching aids, the different level of students’ abilities, the suitability of the learning resources, shortage of time, age level and the different level of students’ achievement. The qualitative data found to be supporting and further reinforced the quantitative data. However, there are some other problems faced by the teachers while they are preparing teaching aids which are not included in our study are the matters of time, facilities, finance and training.


Keywords: Challenges, Preparing Lesson Plan, Preschool Teachers, Instructional Designer
Stream: Instructional Design and Learning Systems
Presentation Type: Virtual Presentation in English
Paper: , Preparing Lesson Plans


Dr. Tang Keow Ngang

Chairperson, Bacherlor of Education (Science & Arts)
School of Educational Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia

Minden, Penang, Malaysia

Tang Keow Ngang is a senior lecturer in School of Educational Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia. She has a B. Ed. (Hons) in Malay Language and Commerce, a M. Ed and PhD in the fields of Educational Administration and Management. All the three degree, she obtained from Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia. Earlier she worked in Primary and Secondary Schools for seven and five years respectively. Currently, she has been awarded as an ASIA Fellows of the Asian Scholarship Foundation (ASF), an organization funded by a grant from the Ford Foundation. This grant is to enable her to undertake her program of study/research project on “Development of Teacher Leadership Style in Creating Special Education Classroom Culture between China and Malaysia” at College of Education, Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan, China for a period of nine (9) consecutive months. She has published a number of research papers and articles in national and international journals, and produced a few research monographs and reports. Her research interests revolve around teacher leadership and collaborative management. She has been research leader on two USM short term grant and co-researcher in several research grants funded by Universiti Sains Malaysia, Centre for Malaysian Chinese Studies, Penang State Government Economic Planning Unit and Department of National Unity and Interaction.

Prof. Dr. Nor Hashimah Hashim

Chairperson, Bachelor of Education (Preschool Education)
School Of Educational Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia

Minden, Penang, Malaysia

Nor Hashimah Hashim is an Associate Professor in the Early Childhood Edcuation at School of Educational Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia. She received her MEd. and PhD at University of Leeds, United Kingdom focusing on primary education. Earlier she worked in primary and secondary schools for six and three years respectively. Currently, she is a program chairperson for BEd. Preschool Education) and teaches undergraduate programs in early childhood curriculum. Her research interests revolve around teaching and learning at preschool and primary level. Two of her current research projects funded by the Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) and Department of National Unity and Integration, focuses on learning environment and instruction quality at the preschool level. She had also conducted research on reading comprehension at primary school at the national level. She has published a number of research papers and articles in national and international journals, and produced three teaching and learning modules for preschool and primary school children.

Dr. Hashimah Mohd. Yunus

Chairperson, Bachelor of Education (Science Education)
School of Educational Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia

Minden, Penang, Malaysia

Hashimah Mohd Yunus is a senior lecturer in the School of Educational Studies, University Sains Malaysia. She has a B.Sc (Hons) in Biology and Chemistry, a M. Ed. in Curriculum Studies and PhD in the field of Science Education from University of Warwick, United Kingdom. Her expertise is in the area of primary science education, awareness in renewable energy and energy efficiency in primary and secondary schools and teacher education. She has been Research Leader on USM short term grant and co-researcher in several other research studies in Malaysia dealing with language issues in science education and energy awareness in primary and secondary school. She is in the progress of conducting research on the language development and science inquiry for year one pupils and a research on impact study of renewable energy and energy efficiency among secondary school students and teachers in Malaysia. Hashimah has also published and co-published a few papers on research publications in journal articles and conference papers at the international level and national level. She is also being consulted on several education projects such as Chairman for the evaluation of year six primary science textbook package for DBP for usage in 2008. Reviewer of the upper secondary school biology textbook for Arah Pendidikan Company. On the international level, she has been an academic consultant to several SEAMEO-RECSAM’s courses and program since 2005.

Norlida Ahmad

Lecturer, School of Educational Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia
Minden, Penang, Malaysia

Mrs. Norlida Ahmad has a Masters in TESL from the University Of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and a Bachelor in Literature from Wilmington College, Ohio, both in USA. She has been teaching English since 1987, first in secondary schools and later at university. Her research interests are in Second Language Acquisition and Teacher Education. At present she is a senior lecturer at the School of Educational Studies in University Science Malaysia. She has presented many papers in Malaysia and overseas conferences.

Ref: G09P0365